thorium concentration average

  • Occurrence of thorium Wikipedia

    Present knowledge of the distribution of thorium resources is poor because of the relatively low-key exploration efforts arising out of insignificant demand. There are two sets of estimates that define world thorium reserves, one set by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the other supported by reports from the OECD and the International Atomic Energy Agency (the IAEA). Under the USGS estimate, India, the United States, and Australia have particularly large reserves of thorium.

  • Thorium Wikipedia

    Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point.Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when

  • Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil

    Jan 01, 2004· High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m 3; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148

  • (PDF) Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    Thorium was stripped from the loaded TBP (30%) in kerosene and Aliquat-336 (10%) in kerosene at an average stripping percentage of 89.04% and 75.75%, respectively.

  • Thorium an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    The average concentration of thorium in sea water is 80 fmol kg −1 and its residence time, estimated from the scavenging removal of 230 Th in the deep sea is 45 years. The only isotope with a primordial origin is the major isotope, 232 Th, the others are formed by in situ decay.

  • Digital Atlas remon.jrc.ec.europa.eu

    Data of thorium concentration in rock samples have been collected from scientific literature. These data have been used to estimate the average value of thorium concentration in bedrock for each geological unit. This map has been developed on a country-by-country basis and could easily be improved if more data were made available.

  • Uranium Fact Sheet

    The average concentration of uranium in the groundwater of the United States is about 0.07 Bq L-1.The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) drinking-water standard for uranium is 30 micrograms per liter (μg L-1), which is about 0.75 Bq L-1 (US EPA 2001).

  • Element Concentrations in Soils and Other Surfici

    part, cannot be evaluated with reference to average, or normal, amounts in undisturbed materials because they were based on samples of deposits expected to have anomalous amounts of certain elements, or were based only on samples from cultivated fields. We began a

  • Thorium concentration in Pakistani diet.

    Thorium concentration was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found to vary from 1.6 ng g(-1) to 12 ng g(-1). The median value was 4.6 ng g(-1). This leads to median daily thorium intake of 2.7 microg d(-1). The geometric mean was 2.6 microg d(-1), which was 13% less than the ICRP value.

  • (PDF) Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    Thorium was stripped from the loaded TBP (30%) in kerosene and Aliquat-336 (10%) in kerosene at an average stripping percentage of 89.04% and 75.75%, respectively.

  • (PDF) Concentration measurements of uranium, thorium and

    The measurements using the (CR-39) detector showed that the concentration of uranium in the soils ranged from (1.07 ± 0.46 ppm) to (4.20 ± 0.50 ppm) and a weighted average

  • Geoscience Australia: AusGeo News 95 Radiometric Map of

    In Australia, the airborne-measured average concentration of uranium in exposed regolith and bedrock (to a depth of around 30 centimetres) based on the new radioelement data is 1.1 ppm. Uranium occurs in two main valence states: U 4+ and U 6+.

  • thorium concentration parts,

    thorium concentration plants villasmariainforis.it. Soil contains an average of about 6 parts of thorium Thorium HPS Chapters. Thorium preferentially adheres very tightly to soil particles, with concentrations in sandy soil generally more than 3,000 times higher than in interstitial water (water in the pore spaces between soil particles); it is even less mobile in clay soils, with

  • The assessment of the radiation hazard indices due to

    Sep 29, 2006· From table 2, it is clear that the thorium to uranium (Th/U) ratio for the average value of the Toshki soil samples is 5.37; this value is high but it is not far from the abundance of the thorium which is about four times that of uranium in the earth crust (Taylor 1973), while the same ratio (Th/U) for iron and gold are 2.14 and 1.0

  • Thorium World Nuclear Association

    The most common source of thorium is the rare earth phosphate mineral, monazite, which contains up to about 12% thorium phosphate, but 6-7% on average. Monazite is found in igneous and other rocks but the richest concentrations are in placer deposits, concentrated by wave and current action with other heavy minerals.

  • Occurrence of thorium Wikipedia

    Thorium is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils.Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals including thorite (ThSiO 4), thorianite (ThO 2 + UO 2) and monazite.Thorianite is a rare mineral and may contain up to about 12% thorium oxide.

  • The thorium, uranium and zirconium concentrations in

    Distribution of thorium and uranium in bauxites 12 Comparison of the thorium and uranium con¬ tents of some bauxites with their parent rocks 20 Thorium and uranium in Arkansas bauxite . . 24 1) Weathering sequence 24 2) Drill core 29 Concentration of thorium and uranium during the processing of bauxite 35 Radioactivity of aluminum metal 40

  • Environment and Geology: Thorium concentration in Ranchi

    Oct 29, 2013· Thorium is widely distributed in the earth’s crust with an average abundance of 8 ppm (parts per million) and is usually associated with uranium or the rare earth-earth elements. The principal mode of occurrence is in the form of veins in granites, synites, pegmatites and other acidic intrusions containing thorium- bearing minerals, such as

  • Nature, Sources, Resources, and Production of Thorium

    Nov 07, 2016· Thorium is a naturally occurring, slightly radioactive element. It is widely distributed in nature with an average concentration of 10.5 ppm Th in the upper earth’s crust. In general, thorium occurs in relatively small number in Th-enriched minerals: thorite, thorianite, monazite, bastnaesite, and thorogummite. However, the main world resources of thorium are

  • SOME EFFECTS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THORIUM NITRATE

    The average initial concentration of thorium for each exposure to the aerosol of thorium nitrate was 330 mgm. thorium per cu. m. of air and the average final concentration was 114 mgm. of thorium per cu. m. of air.Evidence was obtained that all the thorium administered orally as thorium nitrate solution to mice is excreted by way of the feces

  • Concentration and activity ratio of thorium isotopes in

    Thorium concentration A wide variation in concentration of thorium in localized soil has been observed which characterize the diverse geology of the proposed mining study area. The average thorium concentration and their variation observed in the present study area are compared with those reported for the normal background regions of other

  • Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    behavior of thorium, which has only a single oxidation state (4+) that has a very low solubility in the absence of aqueous F-complexes, cannot reflect changing redox conditions. Geochemical concentration of Th relative to U at high temperatures is therefore limited to special magmatic-related environments,

  • Concentration and activity ratio of thorium isotopes in

    Thorium concentration A wide variation in concentration of thorium in localized soil has been observed which characterize the diverse geology of the proposed mining study area. The average thorium concentration and their variation observed in the present study area are compared with those reported for the normal background regions of other

  • Thorium Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally

    Thorium-232 is present in the soil at an average concentration of about 25 Bq/kg (1 Bq = 27 pCi). Because of its very low absorption through the gastrointestinal tract, natural thorium is mainly incorporated into the body by the inhalation of resuspended solid particles at a rate of about 0.1 Bq/yr.

  • Nature, Sources, Resources, and Production of Thorium

    Nov 07, 2016· Thorium is a naturally occurring, slightly radioactive element. It is widely distributed in nature with an average concentration of 10.5 ppm Th in the upper earth’s crust. In general, thorium occurs in relatively small number in Th-enriched minerals: thorite, thorianite, monazite, bastnaesite, and thorogummite. However, the main world resources of thorium are coupled with monazite and

  • Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    behavior of thorium, which has only a single oxidation state (4+) that has a very low solubility in the absence of aqueous F-complexes, cannot reflect changing redox conditions. Geochemical concentration of Th relative to U at high temperatures is therefore limited to special magmatic-related environments,

  • Uranium and Thorium Resources SpringerLink

    Sep 15, 2016· Average Vertical Distribution of Uranium and Thorium. As a result of the various igneous processes, the average concentration of uranium is highest at the surface of the continental crust and decreases approximately exponentially with depth.

  • Occurrence of thorium Wikipedia

    Thorium is found in small amounts in most rocks and soils.Soil commonly contains an average of around 6 parts per million (ppm) of thorium. Thorium occurs in several minerals including thorite (ThSiO 4), thorianite (ThO 2 + UO 2) and monazite.Thorianite is a rare mineral and may contain up to about 12% thorium

  • Preparation and adsorptive properties of thorium oxide

    thorium concentration at approximately 0.3-0.45 molar. There was a variable here other than the thorium concentration and that was the volume of thorium solution precipitated. It was not practical to precipitate as large a volume of the concentrated solution as was used for the dilute solutions due to the amount of thoria involved. Thus the

  • Determination of thorium, uranium, and potassium elemental

    decay products, the concentration of 232Th was determined from the average concentrations of 212Pb and 228Ac in the samples, and that of 238U was determined from the average concentrations of the 214Pb and 214Bi decay products (Hamby and Tynybekov, 2000; Tzortzis et al., 2003a). Thus, an estimation of radionuclide

  • THE CONCENTRATION OF RADIUM, THORIUM, AND

    The average values of the algal analyses for total organic material, the concentra- tion of nitrogen precipitated by trichlor- acetic acid (as an index of protein content), calcium, radium, thorium, and uranium, normalized to the weight of the acid-sol- uble fraction, are given in Table 1. The

  • Environment and Geology: Thorium concentration in Ranchi

    Oct 29, 2013· Thorium is widely distributed in the earth’s crust with an average abundance of 8 ppm (parts per million) and is usually associated with uranium or the rare earth-earth elements. The principal mode of occurrence is in the form of veins in granites, synites, pegmatites and other acidic intrusions containing thorium- bearing minerals, such as

  • SOME EFFECTS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THORIUM NITRATE

    The average initial concentration of thorium for each exposure to the aerosol of thorium nitrate was 330 mgm. thorium per cu. m. of air and the average final concentration was 114 mgm. of thorium per cu. m. of air.Evidence was obtained that all the thorium administered orally as thorium nitrate solution to mice is excreted by way of the feces

  • Assessment of Thorium in the Environment (A Review

    Aug 31, 2012· The average thorium concentration in atmosphere is reported 0.3 ng/m3 in air samples collected from different sites [18]. Different trials in this respect were performed and the values of different isotopes have been cited for air, surface water and ground water [19-20]. The maximum concentration of 232Th in several fruits, vegetables and other

  • Radiation From Granite Countertops Fact Sheet

    This concentration is approximately one‐eighth the average radon gas concentration in U.S. homes (37 Bq m-3) and is well below the EPA guideline of 4 pCi -L 1 (150 Bq m -3 ). This calculation is very conservative in that it assumes that there is no mixing of air between the kitchen and other rooms

  • Thorium, Uranium and Potassium Concentrations in Granites

    The concentrations of thorium, uranium, and potassium have been de- termined in the granites and gneisses of the Rum Jungle Complex. The arithmetic means of all the rocks analyzed are 10.3 ppm U and 45.7 ppm Th. This is more than twice the average concentrations of these elements

  • Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations in granites

    The uranium and thorium content of these older rocks, measured by gamma-ray spectrometry, is more than twice the average for silicic igneous rocks in general. Younger granites of the area also have high concentrations, suggesting that this is a uranium-thorium-rich province.

  • Concentration and activity ratio of thorium isotopes in

    Thorium concentration A wide variation in concentration of thorium in localized soil has been observed which characterize the diverse geology of the proposed mining study area. The average thorium concentration and their variation observed in the present study area are compared with those reported for the normal background regions of other

  • Thorium nitrate Th(NO3)4 PubChem

    Non-colloidal thorium (thorium nitrate) injected in rats concentrated in a non-soluble form in bone marrow macrophages, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. These deposits of thorium associated with phosphorus can be explained by the formation of thorium phosphate in

  • Thorium, uranium and potassium in some sandstones NASA/ADS

    Thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations have been determined in nineteen sands and sandstones by γ-ray spectrometry, fluorometric uranium analysis, and α-counting. The samples were selected so that both common and extreme thorium and uranium ratios would be represented. The average and nearly uniform values found in orthoquartzitic, clay-free sands were potassium (as

  • Original Scientific Paper Precipitation and Hydrolysis of

    concentration of the precipitation components influence the formation of various complexes. In this work the effect of pH upon the formation of precipitates in the system thorium nitrate—ammonium oxalate has been investigated keeping the concentration of thorium nitrate constant (1.25 mM) while syste-

  • Full page fax print

    For total thorium, the ratio is 2.0. 2.0, by the unrestricted use limit for total Multiply the ratio, i.e., 10 pCi/g. The resulting concentration is PO pCi/g, which thorium, i.e., represents the acceptable average concentration in a 10 m' volume of soil. Note that Scenario appl ies

  • Preparation and adsorptive properties of thorium oxide

    thorium concentration at approximately 0.3-0.45 molar. There was a variable here other than the thorium concentration and that was the volume of thorium solution precipitated. It was not practical to precipitate as large a volume of the concentrated solution as was used for the dilute solutions due to the amount of thoria involved. Thus the

  • Thoriated Camera Lens (ca. 1970s)

    They also estimated an exposure of 0.7 mrem per year for an average photographer. If the camera lens contained the maximum permitted concentration of thorium (30%), NUREG-1717 estimated that the aforementioned annual doses could triple. Pertinent Regulations. 10 CFR 40.13 Unimportant quantities of source material (2003)

  • Determination of thorium, uranium, and potassium elemental

    decay products, the concentration of 232Th was determined from the average concentrations of 212Pb and 228Ac in the samples, and that of 238U was determined from the average concentrations of the 214Pb and 214Bi decay products (Hamby and Tynybekov, 2000; Tzortzis et al., 2003a). Thus, an estimation of radionuclide

  • Curve Mnemonic Dictionary Schlumberger

    Thorium Concentration: THORGR: Gamma Ray Contribution from Thorium: TPRA: Thorium/Potassium Ratio: TURA: Thorium/Uranium Ratio: UPRA: Uranium/Potassium Ratio: URAN: Uranium Concentration: VBA1: Detector 1 Variable Barite Factor Running Average: VBA2: Detector 2 Variable Barite Factor Running Average: VBF1: Detector 1 Variable Barite Factor

  • THE CONCENTRATION OF RADIUM, THORIUM, AND

    The average values of the algal analyses for total organic material, the concentra- tion of nitrogen precipitated by trichlor- acetic acid (as an index of protein content), calcium, radium, thorium, and uranium, normalized to the weight of the acid-sol- uble fraction, are given in Table 1. The

  • Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino

    differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemi-cal model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in

  • Radionuclides in the Ocean seawater, sea, depth, oceans

    Thorium-232 232 Th 1.41 × 10 10 yr Radium-226 226 Ra 1.6 × 10 3 yr Potassium-40 40 Its concentration at various depths and locations gives a picture of a current system at work. Among the most notorious of the artificial nuclide contaminations on Earth was the Chernobyl reactor accident, which occurred in 1986.

  • Thorium price conversions, cost calculator

    About Thorium; Thorium weighs 11.72 gram per cubic centimeter or 11 720 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. density of thorium is equal to 11 720 kg/m³; at 25°C (77°F or 298.15K) at standard atmospheric pressure.In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 731.7 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 6.775 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] .